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NWC-6

The process of coagulation and flocculation

An essential stage in the decontamination of water is clarification, which is the physical and chemical process to remove particles that make the water cloudy, i.e. suspended solids, which precipitate in the form of sludge. The suspended particles are negatively charged which means they are constantly moving.
Coagulation is the process of destabilisation and subsequent aggregation of particles in colloidal suspension in water. Flocculation is the agglomeration of these destabilised particles in larger flocs which can be decanted and filtered. For both processes to occur, it is necessary to add substances called coagulants or flocculants. The flocculation process is preceded by coagulation, so the whole process is often called coagulation-flocculation.
NIHON KASETSU reagents contain positively charged substances that attract particles in colloidal suspension. The agglomerations then combine with other mineral compounds and settle as sludge.
 
Suspended particle
Suspended particle Coagulating particle Coagulating particle Sedimentation accelerator Sedimentation accelerator
 

NIHON KASETSU natural inorganic reagent

There are many different types of coagulants and flocculants used for water treatment. The conventional aluminium-based polymers have some significant drawbacks: e.g. they are environmental pollutants, a large amount of product is required, they are toxic, difficult to handle and can cause diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease.
NIHON KASETSU has developed a highly effective reagent based on natural, non-polluting substances whose raw materials are coral fossils, mollusc shells, seaweed and minerals. The reagent is high-performing, safe and very easy to handle. It can treat any type of wastewater and can be used in both fresh and salt water. Moreover, it contains no substances harmful to the environment.
 

Main features

100%natural

Non pollutant. Made of mollusc shells,seaweeds and minerals.
Harmless for human beings,animals and plants.
 

One single compound,powdered

Easy to handle and dose.
High efficiency.
Integrates coagulation and flocculation processes.
 

High-quality resulting sludge

Tighter.
Easy to dewater.
Non pollutant.

Treats any kind of water

Low sensitiveness to pH,temperature,turbidity,salinity...

Versatile

Offers its highest efficiency when used in NIHON KASETSU's machine,but can be used with superb results in any other clarification process available in the market.
 

Composition

 
Most importantly, they comply with environmental regulations. It is very important to know if either the excess sludge or treated water contain parts of flocculant in their composition, so it is very important to know what type of flocculant is used.
Substance Raw materials
  Calcium sulfate  
38.9
  Gypsum  
  Calcium carbonate  
16.6
  Marble  
  Silicon dioxide  
16.0
  Fly ash  
  Aluminium oxide  
8.95
  Fly ash  
  Iron (III) oxide  
1.67
  Fly ash  
  Magnesium oxide  
2.64
  Fly ash  
  Potassium hydrogen carbonate  
0.7
  Fly ash  
  Titanium dioxide  
0.65
  Fly ash  
  Manganese oxide  
0.03
  Fly ash  
  Sodium hydrogen carbonate  
0.65
  Bicarbonate  
  Carbohydrates  
9.83
  Starch  
  Water  
2.1
  Water  
 

Advantages over conventional reagents

 
The main advantages of the NIHON KASETSU reagent compared to conventional flocculants are:
-   It is inorganic, and composed of 100% natural raw materials, such as algae, mollusc shells, coral and minerals. It is environmentally friendly and safe to handle.
-   It has a very short reaction time and achieves a high rate of sedimentation.
-   Gives better treatment performance, with greater reductions in SS, COD and BOD.
Parameter NIHONKASETSU
reagent
Conventional method
(PAC + Polymer)
Comments
  Treatment equipment  
  Compact  
  Very voluminous  
Provides 60-80% space saving.
pH
  Not necessary (if the waste water is neutral)  
  Necessary to control  
  PAC is very acid, with a pH of 3-4  
  Sludge recycling  
  Can be recycled (e.g. if the waste water has no heavy metals)  
  Cannot be recycled (sludge has to be treated as industrial waste)  
  -  
Sludge appearance
  Sludge very dry (low viscosity)  
  Sludge very viscous  
  Water is more difficult to remove from highly viscous sludge  
Adding too much flocculant
This is not a problem
  The water turns white  
  -  
  Flocculant dispensation and control  
  Very easy (single agent)  
  Difficult (2 agents)  
  PAC and polymer amount has to be properly controlled in the conventional method.  
  Handling  
  Safe and easy  
  Difficult  
  Some PACs and polymers contain harmful substances.  
  Environmental friendliness  
  Very high  
  Low  
  The NIHON KASETSU reagent is composed of natural minerals.  
Environmental impact
Nil  
  Significant  
  Some PACs and polymers contain harmful substances.